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Because gravitation is a force of attraction. Ep is greater than zero. Here on Earth. Ep at point x has a negative value! On a larger. Ep at x has a positive value. Ep has a negative value. There is a strange side effect of our choice of zero level. On a large scale. It can be shown mathematically that: Using the same approach as earlier. Put another way. The negative sign indicates that this would be work done by the system not on the system in moving the Earth from a very large distance away from the Sun to its present orbital distance.
This negative work represents potential energy lost by the system as the Earth and the Sun are brought together converted into other forms of energy. This missing energy actually lends stability to a system. It can be thought of as binding energy. Construct a graph that shows the value of g each km above the surface of the Earth up to an altitude of 40 km which corresponds to the altitude of communications satellites. Calculate the gravitational potential energy of a kg communications satellite orbiting the Earth at an altitude of 40 km.
Identify four different factors that cause the value of g to vary around the Earth.
Calculate the ratio of the radius of Charon to the radius of Pluto. Complete the following table to calculate the acceleration due to gravity and weight force experienced by an 80 kg person standing on the surface of each of the planets or moons indicated. Use the data provided in question 7. It will also vary with altitude. In general terms only. Calculate the ratio of the mass of Charon to the mass of Pluto. The mass of the Earth is 24 5. Show that the two alternative units quoted are equivalent.
The moon of Pluto. Charon pronounced Kair-on. Pendulum 2. The period of the pendulum. Tie on the string and adjust its length to about 90 cm before Bosshead attaching the 50 g mass and clamp carrier or pendulum bob to its end. Compare this formula with the general equation for a straight line: Use your expression to calculate a value for g.
What could you do to improve the method of this experiment to make it even more accurate? Mass 3. Write down your expression: Method 1. Enter this length in your results table. Draw a graph of period squared versus length of 2 the pendulum. Using the metre rule. Enter your time for 10 swings in the results table. Analysis 1. Rearrange the pendulum equation given earlier to the form.
Be sure to start and stop the stopwatch at an extreme of the motion rather than somewhere in the middle. Can you suggest a reason why it should be so reliable?
Results Copy the table below into your practical book to record your results. What are the sources of error in this experiment? Plot T on the vertical axis and length on the horizontal axis. This method usually produces very accurate results.
The formula for the period is as shown below: Your graph should display a straight-line relationship. This com2 parison shows that if T forms the y-axis and length. How does g on Jupiter compare with the rest of the plotted results? How does g on all of the natural satellites moons listed compare with g on Pluto? Questions 1. How does g on Mars compare with g on Mercury? How does g on Uranus compare with g on Venus? The equation relating these variables is: Can you provide one good argument Theory The value of g on the surface of a planet depends upon the mass of the planet and its radius.
Uranus and Venus compare with g on Earth? You may be surprised at some of the results. How does g on Saturn. Analysis Draw a bar graph of your results. It uses two solid-fuel rocket engines to supplement the thrust of its own liquid-fuel rocket engines. Figure 2. Galileo postulated that all masses. On the Moon there is no air to get in the way. We will begin by considering simple projectiles. When astronauts went to the Moon.
All objects are accelerated towards the Earth at the same rate. This lower rate of acceleration was less affected by air resistance and was easier to measure. It is natural to think of heavier objects falling faster than lighter ones. For our purposes. This rate of acceleration applies to all objects.
This includes such things as a box dropped from a plane. In the absence of air resistance. Because the two motions are perpendicular.
If used with a camera. Notice that we have taken up to be the positive direction. The vertical motion When a ball is thrown directly up. Ignoring air resistance. Using this equation. As it falls it will speed up until. As a result it will rise up. In adapting the acceleration equations for the vertical motion we need to note the following variables: These equations are shown together here as a set: We can say that for this segment: We can now say that: This is the time to rise to the peak height.
This is hard to visualise only because we are used to the force of friction. The equation to use has these four variables: The right equation to use has these four variables: That is. By symmetry. If no acceleration is experienced. The equation to use is: If we were to mark the position of the disc at regular time intervals. In adapting the acceleration equations for the horizontal motion we need to note the following variables: The disc on the air table will. Once free of the ground.
Any object travelling with a velocity will eventually bump into something and bring the motion to an end. What was the velocity of the bullet? We can modify the third equation above to show this: What was its velocity?
If it takes 0. They are summarised in table 2. Each successive image in both motions occurs after the same periods of time. Freethrow shooter Use a spreadsheet to predict the conditions necessary to shoot a basketball into a hoop. We now regard the images as timematched pairs and use them as coordinates to plot the combined motion of the projectile. Table 2. Notice that the real velocity of the projectile is directed at a tangent to the trajectory.
We shall take upwards to be the positive direction. Determine the vertical and horizontal components of this initial velocity.
The velocity of the projectile at other times during the motion can be found by combining the vertical and horizontal velocities together in a vector addition. Performing this calculation determines the initial velocity in the vertical direction and the initial velocity in the horizontal direction.
The vertical component. This initial velocity can quite easily be resolved into vertical and horizontal components using trigonometry. The velocity of the projectile Projectiles are most commonly sent out at some angle to the horizontal. Calculate the maximum height reached by this ball. Resolve initial velocity. You can see how the velocity reduces to a minimum at the peak. Consider the vertical motion up to the peak. To determine maximum height.
Modelling a stunt driver That is. As the projectile falls from its peak. Select an acceleration equation to suit the available data. To determine trip time.
This time. This course does not go into the effects of spin. Tennis players are able to strike a ball at this sort of velocity and higher. Once again. Calculate t. To determine the range. As a result. He had no way of testing this idea but it does hit upon one important fact — that for any given altitude. Path of projectile without air resistance W Fa. If thrown fast enough. Imagine throwing a stone directly up. This is the manner in which space probes depart the Earth and head off into space.
Path of a projectile with air resistance Fa. When thrown. Isaac Newton wrote that it should be possible to launch a projectile fast enough so that it achieves an orbit around the Earth. It was only a thought experiment. If thrown faster. If thrown faster still. W W Figure 2. If it is thrown faster. If thrown fast enough then.
The initial velocity required to achieve this is known as escape velocity. In the real world. By considering the kinetic and gravitational potential energy of a projectile. Rockets A rocket engine is different from most other engines in that it carries with it both its fuel and oxygen supply. It does not apply to a rocket. We are now in a position to calculate the escape velocity for Earth: Any fuel needs oxygen to burn and most engines. Whereas projectiles receive an initial velocity and are then left to fall through a trajectory.
Their relationship is shown in the equation that follows. This is a considerable velocity. Let us now turn our attention to powered projectiles. Hot gases are produced at an extreme rate and are forced out through the nozzle. This law says that for every force there is an equal but opposite force. It is important to note that. The forward motion of the rocket can be understood by recalling the Law of Conservation of Momentum.
The dry. Liquid-propellant rockets keep both the liquid fuel. Modern rockets can use either solid or liquid propellants. Although the two forces are equal and opposite. Pumps force each liquid from their tanks and spray them into a combustion chamber where they mix as they burn. You should also recall that: Stated another way. This law states that during any interaction in a closed system the total momentum of the system remains unchanged.
The hollow core is not necessary. Insulated casing Solid mixture of fuel and oxidiser Hollow core Nozzle Figure 2. This means that during any one-second time interval: The rocket is forcing a large volume of gases backward behind it. Solid rocket propellant is a manufactured mixture of a fuel. Once in orbit. Also shown is the g force experienced by the astronauts within. The thrust of a liquid-fuel engine can be throttled to some extent.
As it is a mass subject to several forces. Determine its initial rate of acceleration upon lift-off. In addition..
As the fuel is burnt. The sensation of weight that you feel. It is common to experience variations in g force when riding up or down in an elevator. Note that g force is closely related to acceleration. We shall assume up to be the positive direction. During those few seconds there is only the downward acceleration due to gravity. If the elevator were in free fall. In other words. When the elevator begins to accelerate upwards.
When the elevator accelerates downwards. This situation is analogous to a multi-stage rocket after it has jettisoned a spent stage but before it has ignited the next. It is able to deliver a thrust of 4. In this case. Typical altitude km 9 8 7 6 r ze Neaorc ro gf e 2. The subjects sit within an aircraft. During this phase the subjects within experience about half a minute of near-weightlessness before the pilot needs to throttle up the engines again to recover the dive and repeat the process.
The astronaut within is experiencing a one g load. Since the thrust now exceeds the weight. The g force experienced by the rocket will have a value slightly greater than one. From this point onwards. The g force experienced by the rocket and astronaut begins again at a value marginally greater than one and gradually builds to its maximum value just as the second-stage fuel supply is exhausted.
A multi-stage rocket. The variation in g forces varied during the launch of Saturn V. If there is a third stage. When a roller-coaster zooms down through a dip in its track and turns upward.
This initial condition will not change until the building thrust exceeds the weight of the rocket. This idea has been used to provide training for astronauts with a simulated weightless environment. At this point a single-stage rocket becomes a projectile. This turn will create a g load of approximately 2.
Sun Earth's motion Figure 2. The answer is that the velocity at which the ball is bowled is greater than it would have been if the bowler had not run up. Only then is the rocket launched up into orbit. Soon after this the person will black out. In this way. This is discussed in more detail in chapter 3. In addition. In a similar way. The same principle applies to a rocket launched from the Earth. This is because the velocity of the ball relative to the ground is equal to the velocity of the ball relative to the bowler.
Unlike Tsiolkovsky. By the eleventh century. Goddard decided early to dedicate his life to rocketry. Despite all of this. In the s he became a professor of aeronautics at Caltech. He published two important books — Astronautics in and Astronautics Complement in He conceived ideas then tested them.
Planning of this sort clearly favours certain times of the year over others. William Congreve. Roberts Esnault-Pelterie — was a French rocket pioneer. It promptly sold out. Goddard was an engineer and an experimentalist. The JPL still exists today. Listed here are some of the most notable pioneers.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky — was a Russian mathematics teacher who took an interest in rocketry. The Hale rockets followed 50 years later. He was an early member of the VfR.
Also inspired by Jules Verne as a boy. Theodore von Karman — was born in Hungary but later settled in America. Herman Oberth — was born in Romania but lived in Germany. Goddard — was an American college professor of physics with a passion for rocketry. His work was purely theoretical as he performed no experiments. One of those inspired by Oberth was Wernher von Braun — who became the rocket engineer responsible for the development of the V2 rocket.
He experimented with various liquid fuels in rocket motors of his design. This work won an award and Oberth used the prize money to download rocket motors for the VfR. He suggested the idea that rockets be used as long-range ballistic missiles.
These favourable periods are referred to as launch windows. This last combination caused him a major hand injury. His ideas were wide ranging — from the very pragmatic. Working entirely on his own. Purely a theorist. Robert H. Although the University of Heidelberg rejected the thesis.
He wrote a doctoral thesis titled By Rocketry to Space.
He was the inspiration for men such as Sergei Korolev — who was the Russian Chief Constructor responsible for Sputnik I and the Vostok rocket. The angle of each ramp is Rockets differ from other engines such as jets because they carry with them the oxygen required to burn their fuel. Describe the effect of air resistance on the trajectory of a projectile. The trajectory can be analysed mathematically by regarding the vertical and horizontal components of the motion separately. He faces the backboard.
A basketball player stands 2. List any assumptions we are making in our treatment of projectile motion.
A football is kicked with a velocity of Calculate whether he will score. Identify any common variables. Describe the trajectory of a projectile.
A volleyball player sets the ball for a team mate.
It is given by the equation: Assume it is travelling horizontally and accelerating up to orbital velocity. A certain model rocket has a pre-launch mass of Identify the stage of a space mission during which an astronaut experiences the greatest g forces.
Calculate the escape velocity of the following planets. To increase the range of the shell in question Identify the variables upon which the escape velocity of the Earth depends. It is able to deliver a thrust of 6. If the mass of the Earth were somehow changed to four times its real value. If a rocket had a mass of 32 kg. Describe strategies that spacecraft designers can employ to ensure the survival of living occupants as well as delicate payloads.
Discuss the manner in which the rotation of the Earth and the revolution of the Earth around the Sun can be utilised by rocket designers.
Calculate the new range. Determine the average speed of the ball bearing down the slope during each time interval. Your answer 2 will be in cm per time unit. What assumptions have been made in order to obtain these results?
Having adjusted the apparatus. What is the source of this extra energy? Beginning at the point where the ball entered the graph paper. We are going to use that same strategy to slow down a projectile motion by projecting a ball bearing across an inclined plane.
The ball moves faster across the bottom of the paper than across the top. Your answers should be in cm per time unit. How would the path of the ball bearing differ if: Remove the carbon paper and highlight the path for easier analysis. In this way things happened slow enough for him to observe them. In the horizontal motion: Recall that projectile motion can be considered as the addition of two linear motions at right angles to each other — the horizontal.
Clamp the ruler so that the ball bearing rolling from it onto the inclined plane will be projected horizontally. Plot a graph of average speed down the slope versus time and determine a value for the acceleration of the ball down the slope.
What do these graphs indicate about the motion of the ball down the plane? Thus we can arbitrarily call one of these major divisions a unit of time. Record and tabulate the distance down the slope that the ball bearing travelled during each time interval. The diagram distinguishes between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft.
You will need the following conversion factors: The third stage. The spacecraft differed between missions. The launch vehicle. It then separated from the rocket and tumbled back down to the ocean.
The CM was the only part of the entire rocket to return to Earth. Upon launch it would burn for approximately s before it was exhausted at an altitude of about 70 km. The rocket used for the Apollo missions was the Saturn V. Theory Apollo 10 was launched on 18 May Young and Cernan. The actual maximum g loads experienced by Apollo astronauts at each stage were never quite as high as this.
According to your table. You will need the following formulas: Complete the results table below. When do the greatest g loads occur during such a mission?
Results 1. It occupies a low Earth orbit with an altitude between km and km. Without that force the rock will travel in a straight line. The Greek. Orbital velocity. The force required to maintain circular motion. If that speed is not reached.
Most orbiting spacecraft do not need to be returned to Earth. There are several different types and shapes of orbit.
Because the path of the rock is in a horizontal plane. If you were to let go of the string. In the case of the spacecraft. As an example of circular motion. He said that an object would continue in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. The same is true of a spacecraft in orbit around the Earth.
Uniform circular motion is circular motion with a uniform orbital speed. Access and the quality of learning: The story of a curriculum document for school physics Unpublished doctoral thesis.
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Content analysis focusing on inquiry. Journal of Curriculum Studies 17 1 , 87— Google Scholar Theile, R. A comparative analysis of analogies in secondary biology and chemistry textbooks used in Australian schools. Research in Science Education, 25 2 , — Physics course development support material. I have put the prices of the books below. Please let me know if you are interested in a book, the prices are negotiable if you download more than one I also have other ads of textbook and workbooks on all the other subjects I did in school, check them out if you want.
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